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Below you will find some frequently asked questions. If there are any additional questions, please contact us at info@ptmbio.com so we can help.

    1.How much tissues or cells should I provide for proteomic analysis?

    The amount of tissue or cells required for proteomic analysis may vary depending on the type of sample and the abundance of the protein of interest. As a general guideline, the following minimum amounts of starting material are recommended:

    1) For animal tissue, at least 15 mg should be provided.

    2) For plant tissue, at least 100 mg should be provided.

    3) For cells, a minimum of 1.5 x 106 cells and 7 μL of routine cell precipitate should be provided as a reference.

    2.How do I collect and send cell samples?

    1) Digest the adherent cells with trypsin or scrape them off with a cell scraper and collect them into 1.5 mL centrifuge tubes.

    2) Wash the cells twice with pre-cooled PBS and collect them by centrifugation at low speed (600 g) at 4℃.

    3) Rapidly freeze the resulting cell precipitates using liquid nitrogen and store them in a -80℃ freezer until shipment.

    4) When shipping the cell samples, pack them with dry ice to ensure they remain frozen during transportation.

    It's important to note that shipping biological samples may be subject to various regulations and requirements, depending on the destination and mode of transport. Therefore, it's advisable to consult with the shipping company or relevant authorities to ensure compliance with all applicable regulations.

    3.How do I collect and send animal samples?

    When collecting clinical or animal tissue samples, it is important to clean them with pre-cooled PBS after accurate sampling until there is no obvious red color in the PBS solution. For tissue over 100 mg, it should be cut and cleaned. Next, the samples should be rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored in a -80℃ refrigerator. Finally, the samples should be sent with dry ice.

    4.How much clinical FFPE or paraffin slices should I provide for proteomic analysis?

    For proteomic analysis using clinical FFPE or paraffin slices, it is recommended to provide slices with a thickness of 5-10 μm for FFPE samples. For paraffin slices, there is no specific specification, but it is recommended to provide at least 4 slices with a size of 4cm2 and a thickness of 10 μm or greater. The overall volume of the provided samples should be greater than 15 mm3.

    5.How much puncture samples should I provide for Proteomic Analysis?

    The amount of puncture samples required for proteomic analysis can vary depending on the specific experiment and sample type. Common puncture needle specifications range from 6G to 20G, with an inner diameter between 0.6-2mm. The length of the needle depends on the sample type, for example, bone marrow biopsy samples may require a length greater than 1.5cm, while common tissue puncture samples may be slightly shorter. After obtaining the tissue, it is recommended to clean it with pre-cooled PBS until there is no obvious red color in the PBS solution. Then, the tissue should be rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80℃ until shipment. The amount of tissue required can vary, so it is best to consult with the testing facility or experiment protocol to determine the optimal amount of sample needed.

    6.How much tissue or cells should I provide for Lactylome Analysis?

    The amount of protein required for PTM quantitative analysis is higher than that of proteomic analysis. It is recommended that you provide as many samples as possible. The amount of tissue or cells needed can vary depending on the type of sample and protein abundance. However, the minimum amount of sample required is:

    1) Animal tissue: not less than 80 mg;

    2) Plant tissue: not less than 500 mg;

    3) Cells: The minimum amount of routine cell precipitates is 70 μL, and the number of cells should be at least 2x107 as a reference.

    7.Can Serum, Blood Cells, B Cells, T Cells, etc. be Used for Proteomic Research?

    Yes, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes (containing B cells, T cells, etc.), and serum (only human serum can remove high abundance proteins) can be used for proteomic research.

    8.Protein Extraction of the Sample (Foreign Customers Need to Extract Protein Themselves)

    For infectious or pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or viruses of infected samples (refer to the classification of pathogens/viruses for details), customers are responsible for extracting the protein solution. For other samples, we recommend that you send them directly to us on dry ice, and we will be responsible for protein extraction. Protein extraction is the most basic step in the whole proteomic analysis and is crucial as it directly affects the results of subsequent experiments.

    9.Protein Extraction Method for Pathogenic Bacteria and Virus-Infected Cells or Tissues

    Protein Extraction Method for Pathogenic Bacteria and Virus-Infected Cells or Tissues

    This method is suitable for Class II and III pathogenic bacteria and tissues infected with these two types of bacteria. For Class I pathogenic bacteria samples, technical services are not available. Class IV samples are not required at this time. For specific classification standards, please refer to Jingjie Biological Pathogen Microorganism List.

    For cell, tissue, bacterial, and fungal samples:

    1) Remove the samples from -80 °C and add lysis solution (containing 1% SDS) at a volume equal to twice the sample volume (or adjust according to the actual situation).

    2) Sterilize the samples at 121 °C for 30 min using moist heat (or heat at 100 °C for 30 min with the lid open).

    3) Grind the samples into powder by adding liquid nitrogen to the lysate (cellular samples do not need to be manipulated).

    4) Sonicate the samples in ice water for 3 min using the following parameters: sonication for 3 sec, stop for 5 sec, power at 220W.

    5) Place the samples in a water bath at 100 °C for 20 min for thermal lysis.

    6) Seal the samples with sealing film, place them in self-sealing bags or 50 ml centrifuge tubes, and send them directly to our company in a dry ice environment (do not centrifuge, retain the residue).

    For prion samples:

    1) Autoclave the samples at 134 °C for 60 min to inactivate them.

    2) Grind the samples in liquid nitrogen and add an appropriate amount of lysis solution (containing 1% SDS) to the ground powder (except cell samples).


    1.How does PTMab ensure the quality of their antibodies?

    Rigorous in-house standards validate each antibody’s high specificity and affinity. Our strict quality control standards include:

    1) In-house assays with modified peptides show a detection limit as low as 4 ng.

    2) Ensuring no cross-react with other modified peptides by testing the antibody for a large panel of structurally similar modified peptides using dot blot.

    3) Competing with antigen peptides confirms the specificity of the antibody.

    4) Treating cells with specific activators or inhibitors verifies target specificity.

    2.How does PTMab ensure consistency between lot to lot?

    Each lot is only released after validating the affinity and specificity side by side with the old lot by ELISA, dot blot, and relevant applications such as Western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    3.What is the concentration of PTMab antibody?

    Antibody concentration is adjusted based on the optimization of client expected assays rather than amount of protein. Please contact the technical support team at info@ptm-biolab.com for the concentration of a particular lot.

    4.Does my antibody work on the applications that you did not list in your QC datasheet?

    We only recommend the applications that have passed our validation tests. If you are interested in other applications that are not listed on our product datasheet, please contact our team at info@ptm-biolab.com for further assistance.

    5.Where can I get the reactivity of your antibody with other species? How should I determine whether an antibody has cross-reactivity with other species?

    Our pan PTM antibodies, which detect post-translational modification independent of its surrounding amino acid residues, are expected to react to All Species.

    For site-specific histone modification antibodies, especially those targeting the highly conserved and flexible N-terminal tails, you can perform a pair-wise sequence alignment between the target histone and the potential cross-reactive histone using BLAST. Typically, these antibody epitopes are linear and are about 5-8 amino acids in length. If you find 5-8 identical consecutive amino acid residues around the target modification site in the BLAST result, the antibody can be successfully applied to detect the species. But we do not guarantee 100% success.

    6.When there are multiple choices for one antibody, which one should I choose?

    PTMab often provides polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against each target. Please contact the technical support team at info@ptm-biolab.com for further assistance on which antibody will perform best in your desired application.

    7.Can I specify the lot number when I place an order?

    Yes, please contact info@ptm-biolab.com for your special request. However, due to the minor difference between lot-to-lot of polyclonal antibodies for certain applications such as ChIP, we recommend purchasing a bulk size for the polyclonal antibody that works for you.

    8.Do you offer free test samples?

    We do not offer free or small aliquot for testing purposes. Our policy is that if the antibody does not work on the species or applications indicated in our product datasheet, we will offer a free replacement or credit of the same value.

    9.Can I order a carrier-free antibody?

    Yes, please contact the customer support team at info@ptm-biolab.com for the availability and pricing. Also, we offer bulk sizes by antibody concentration per request.

    10.Does PTM BIO offer a custom antibody generation service?

    Yes, PTM BIO offers a proprietary custom antibody generation service for both PTM-specific and unmodified antibodies. Our custom antibody production service includes immunogen design & synthesis, immunization, antibody purification, and validation. Please visit our Custom Antibody Development page for more information and request a quote.

    11.How are PTMab reagents shipped?

    Most PTMab antibodies are lyophilized and sufficiently stable to allow for domestic and international shipping at ambient temperature.

    Antibody conjugated agarose beads products require gel packs or dry ice. If you received an antibody conjugated agarose beads product at room temperature, rest assured that the product has passed stability test of storage at 37°C for 2 weeks or room temperature for 1 month.

    12.How do I store the antibody?

    Unless otherwise indicated on the product data sheet, antibodies should always be stored at -20°C. Upon receipt antibodies should be stored lyophilized and only reconstituted shortly before use. After reconstitution, our antibodies are stored in glycerol to a final concentration of 50% to prevent freeze/thaw damage.

    13.How to properly reconstitute lyophilized antibodies?

    To reconstitute the antibody, centrifuge the vial of lyophilized antibody at 12,000 x g for 20 seconds. This will help pellet all the lyophilized powder for reconstitution. Add 100 µl of antibody stabilizer, then pipette up and down multiple times to make sure that the powder is completely dissolved. Briefly centrifuge again and store the solution at -20°C.

    14.What is the shelf-life of my PTMab product?

    Liquid or reconstituted antibodies are stable for 1 year if stored properly at -20°C.

    15.Can you provide the antigen peptide for my positive control experiment?

    The antigen sequence is proprietary information, and we are unable to release this information.

    16.How do I know if the band pattern is real for pan antibodies?

    You can treat cells with specific activators or inhibitors to verify the target specificity.


    1.What is the Standard Bioinformatic Analysis?

    The Standard Bioinformatic Analysis represents the most common used analysis strategies that would fit the multi-omics data such as proteomics, post-translational modifieromics, metabolomics, et al. Those analyses include basic data quality control (Number of identified proteins, length of identified peptides, PCA, et al), functional annotations of identified proteins, differential expression analysis, functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction network analysis. The results of all the standard bioinformatic analyses would be available in a HTML report with all the source data, which could help the users well organize their results.

    2.What can we get with the Customized Data Analysis?

    Theoretically, any reasonable requirements could be well met by our Customized Data Analysis Services based on the adequate communications and discussions. The featured parts of the Those Customized Data Analysis include the molecular subtyping analysis and identification of the biomarkers by machine learning for clinical datasets, integrated analysis of multi-omics data, predications of the kinase activity and the motif analysis of the post-translational modified sites, et al.

    3.What kinds of omics data analyses can you support?

    Our bioinformatic services are mainly specialized for the proteomics, post-translational modifieromics, metabolomics data generated by our mass spectrum platform. However, if you have other omics data in hand such as transcriptomics, genomics, epigenetics, et al, our Customized Data Analysis Services can be available for the integrated analysis for the multi-omics data and try to help our customers link the biological insights from different aspects.

    4.How long can we get the bioinformatics results?

    Generally, the initial solution would be available in 5 work-days. And if the need is great and hard to deal with, many more time could be allowed based on the adequate communications with our customers. Of course, the deadline could be also in advance under the emergent requirements.

    5.Can you help us analyze other omics data other than proteomics and PTM?

    Yes, of course. Our scientists are experienced in a variety of backgrounds, range from epigenetics, genomics, transcriptomics, translatomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and machine learning fields. And our Customized Data Analysis Services would be helpful for the integrated analysis of multi-omics data. The only thing you can do is just to contact us and tell us your need followed by sending your personalized omics data according to the adequate communications and discussions.

    6.What if the proteomics data are not consistent with the matched transcriptomics data?

    Generally speaking, in prokaryotic cells, the proteomics data are well correlated with the transcriptomics data because the regulation of gene expression mainly happened at the transcription level. In eukaryotic cell, however, the gene expression can be regulated at any procedures along the central dogma, including the post-transcriptional level, translation level and the post-translational level. Thus, it is not strange that the proteomics data are not well consistent with the transcriptomics data. In this case, you can consider that if there exist some interesting biological insights in post-transcriptional, translation, or post-translational regulation.

    7.What exactly do I get at the end of the project?

    We will provide an analysis report of the project, including the annotated proteomic expression matrix, quality control results, bioinformatics analysis results, and descriptions of our methods. The raw MS files will also be provided. In addition, you could propose analysis requirements at any point in time on this project.

    8.Are there any services/products/analysis related to drug research &development?

    Yes, pleasure to introduce our pharmaceutical research products and services for you. Based on the result of proteomics services such as 4D-LFQ quantitative proteomics and high depth phosphorylation modification proteomics, PTM BIO provides follow-up analysis and visualization service of small molecule compounds Including but not limited to:

    1) Drug screening for Modification sites of proteins

    2) Molecular docking

    3) Virtual screening based on ligand/structure

    4) Identification of disease biomarker and drug repositioning

    5) TPP validation of drug target binding affinity

    6) Protein 3D structure prediction

    9.Why do I choose PTM BIO's omics and bioinformatics products?

    PTM BIO has a professional team dedicated to proteomics related fields. The analysis algorithm and workflow we use are authoritative and accurate, and closely follow the method and idea of the latest high-level SCI paper. The original and in-house algorithms used have also published on SCI papers with high IF-scores and high references. The algorithm module system is comprehensive, covering almost all proteome correlation analysis. Our scientific service process is automated, which can provide a more efficient and rapid service cycle.

    10.Could the chart generated from the bioinformatic analysis be customized according to my requirements (such as color, shape, etc.)?

    Of course, the professional after-sales team is responsible for the intimate connection with customers. We will effectively communicate your feedback with bioinformatic analysts in a timely manner until satisfactory results are obtained.

    11.Could you reproduce the processes or algorithms in the articles I am interested in?

    No problem. PTM BIO provides personalized customization services, providing you with professional and experienced personnel to customize your requirement and experimental processes one-to-one until you are satisfied. As PTM BIO's in-house algorithm library contains a variety of analysis and visualization algorithm modules, we will give priority to selecting methods from the algorithm library to form the overall process of the paper.


    1.How do I place an order?

    We accept orders via:

    (1) Online: You can use a Purchase Order or credit card to place the order

    (2) Email: info@ptm-biolab.com 

    (3) Fax: +1 312-243-2267

    (4) Phone: +1 312-802-6843

    2.What information do I need to provide for my order?

    Please provide the following information to complete your order:

    · Product catalog number and quantity desired

    · Shipping address and billing address

    · Purchase order number or credit card number

    · Your contact information (phone number and email) so we can contact you directly regarding the stock availability and shipping status

    3.How do I get a quote?

    Please contact sales support at info@ptm-biolab.com for your inquiries.

    4.Can I get a discount?

    We offer discounts for bulk size orders. Please contact sales support at info@ptm-biolab.com for custom orders. You may also visit the promotion page for more information.

    5.Do you have a distributor in my country?

    Please visit the contact us page to find our distributors.

    **For distribution opportunities, contact us at info@ptm-biolab.com. 

    6.Do you charge VAT?

    Our price does not include VAT. For the customers outside of the US, VAT will be charged during customs clearance via FedEx or your customs broker.

    7.How much does the shipping & Handling fee charge?

    Domestic shipping: $40 for all products

    International shipping: Shipping costs typically start at $90 (exclusive of VAT) for lyophilized antibody products and vary from country to country. For antibody conjugated agarose beads product which requires shipment with gel packs and dry ice, shipping fee is $250+

    **Please contact us at info@ptm-biolab.com for special requests on shipping.

    8.Can I use my own shipping courier?

    Yes. Please provide your FedEx or UPS account number in your purchase orders or contact us at info@ptm-biolab.com for your special request.

    9.When do I receive the product?

    All in-stock, domestic orders are shipped within 2 business days through FedEx Standard Overnight.

    International orders are shipped within 2 business days via FedEx International Priority. Antibody conjugated agarose beads products are shipped on Mondays or Fridays to avoid weekend holdover by customs clearance. The transition is about 3 to 7 business days, depending on the customs clearance process.

    Please contact us if you have not received an order confirmation email within 2 business days of placing your order.

    10.What are your payment options?

    (1) Pay via check:
    Remit to: PTM BIO LLC
    Mailing Address: 2201 W Campbell Park Drive, Suite 305, Chicago, IL 60612
    (2) Pay via ACH or wire transfer:
    Contact info@ptm-biolab.com for more information
    (3) Pay via Credit Card

    11.How do I cancel an order?

    Please contact our team at info@ptm-biolab.com for assistance.

    12.What is the return/replacement policy?

    If a product does not work on the species or applications as described in our product datasheet, you can notify us using the technical support form online. Our scientists will help you troubleshoot those problems, and if your issue is not resolved, we will offer a free replacement or credit of the same value.